Table of Contents

Introduction

intro

  1. Battle of Shanghai
  2. From Shanghai to Nanking
  3. Interview: The Nanking Atrocities

The Fall of Nanking

fall

  1. What Foreign Journalists Witnessed
  2. The New York Times Article, 18 Dec 1937
  3. The New York Times Article, 9 Jan 1938

The Reign of Terror

safetyzone

  1. What Japanese Journalists Witnessed
  2. The Safety Zone and American Missionaries
  3. What Westerners Witnessed: Letters and Diaries

Confessions of Former Soldiers

confessions

  1. Killing Prisoners of War
  2. Japanese Soldiers’ Diaries
  3. Rape and Pillage

Psychological Warfare

propaganda

  1. Chinese Propaganda
  2. Japanese Propaganda
  3. (Appendix) Propaganda Activities

The Postwar Judgement

imtfe019

  1. International Military Tribunal for the Far East
  2. Nanking War Crimes Tribunal
  3. The Judgement of the IMTFE

The Controversies in the 1990s

numbers

  1. The Death Toll: Early Estimates
  2. The Death Toll: Estimates in the 1990s
  3. The Controversies in Japan

Works Cited

works

  1. Books, Journals, Newspaper Articles, Films, Interviews and Speeches
  2. Gallery: Nanking in Japanese Military Postcards